Percepção dos pacientes sobre qualidade de vida e doença renal crônica hemodialítica / Patients' perception of quality of life and hemodialysis chronic kidney disease

Autores

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.26432/1809-3019.2022.67.005

Palavras-chave:

terapia substitutiva renal

Resumo

Introdução: A terapia renal substitutiva (TRS) hemodiálise ocasiona mudanças abruptas no dia a dia dos pacientes com doença renal crônica. Alterações e limitações na realização de atividades de vida diária ocasionam grande impacto nas emoções e na qualidade de vida (QV) do paciente com DRC dialítica. Objetivo: Identificar a percepção da QV de pacientes com doença renal crônica em hemodiálise. Método: Tratou-se de um estudo de campo descritivo, de corte transversal, com abordagem qualitativa. A pesquisa foi submetida ao Comitê de Ética e Pesquisa da Instituição, Certificado para Apreciação Ética n° 20689819.0.0000.5479. O instrumento da coleta de dados incluiu informações sociodemográficas e clínica dos pacientes, além de três perguntas sobre QV e DRC, fundamentadas na literatura cientifica. A análise dos discursos ocorreu segundo o modelo do discurso do sujeito coletivo. Resultados: Amostra foi composta por 54 pacientes, categorias foram criadas e quatro perguntas para avaliar a QV durante a HD. A primeira questão que perguntou o que o paciente entende sobre QV, 29,6% dos pacientes responderam que ter saúde, a segunda questão que avaliou como ele percebe sua QV após o início na HD, 16,7% dos pacientes responderam que percebem estar melhor,  5,5% dos pacientes afirmam que a hemodiálise impacta em sua QV, apesar disso 18,5% responderam que a saúde é o mais impactante, quanto à melhorias na QV durante o tratamento, 31,5% responderam que o transplante melhoraria sua QV. Conclusão: Concluímos que ter saúde e a esperança de um tratamento definitivo o transplante renal estão entre a principal percepção de QV para os pacientes com DRC em HD. Existe um comprometimento físico e psicológico dos pacientes em terapia renal substitutiva e que merecem um olhar diferente para acompanhá-los diariamente, amenizando o impacto sobre suas vidas.

Palavras-chave: Insuficiência renal crônica, Hemodiálise, Terapia de substituição renal, Qualidade de vida

Abstract

Introduction: The renal replacement therapy (RRT) hemodialysis causes abrupt changes in the daily lives of patients with chronic kidney disease. Changes and limitations in performing activities of daily living cause great impact on the emotions and quality of life (QoL) of patients with dialysis CKD. Objective: To identify the perception of QoL of patients with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis. Method: This was a descriptive field study, cross-sectional, with a qualitative approach. The research was submitted to the Ethics and Research Committee (CEP) of the Institution, Certificate for Ethical Appreciation nº. 20689819.0.0000.5479. The data collection instrument included sociodemographic and clinical information of the patients, besides three questions on QL and CKD, based on the scientific literature. Discourse analysis occurred according to the collective subject discourse model. Results: Sample was composed of 54 patients; categories were created and four questions to assess QL during HD. The first question asked what the patient understands about QL, 29.6% of the patients answered to have health, the second question evaluated how they perceive their QL after the beginning of HD, 16.7% of the patients answered that they perceive to be better, 5.5% of the patients said that hemodialysis impacts their QL, despite this 18.5% answered that health is the most impacting, regarding the improvements in QL during treatment, 31.5% answered that the transplant would improve their QL. Conclusion: We conclude that having health and the hope for a definitive treatment, the kidney transplantation, are among the main perceptions of QL for patients with CKD in HD. There is a physical and psychological impairment of patients in renal replacement therapy and that deserve a different look to accompany them daily, mitigating the impact on their lives.

Keywords: Chronic renal insufficiency, Hemodialysis, Renal replacement therapy, Quality of life

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Biografia do Autor

Luciana Soares Costa Santos, Faculdade de Ciências Médicas da Santa Casa de São Paulo. Curso de Graduação em Enfermagem. São Paulo - SP - Brasil

Nurse by the Federal University of São Carlos, Specialist in ICU Nursing (FMUSP), Specialist in Health Education (FMUSP) and
Surgical Nursing (UNIFESP), Master in Nursing (UNICAMP) and Doctor in Science (EEUSP). She is a professor of undergraduate and
graduate nursing at the Faculty of Medical Sciences of São Paulo, at the Department of Adult Health. Professor at
the University of São Paulo School of Nursing, at the Department of Medical-Surgical Nursing.
Coordinator of the Postgraduate Course in Nursing in Cardiology and Hemodynamics at FCMSCSP and Technical Supervisor
of the Postgraduate Course in Nursing in Clinical Medicine and Surgery at FCMSCSP. Coordinator of the League of Nursing in Critical
Patient Care (LEAPC) FCMSCSP and of the League of Nursing in Pre-Hospital/Trauma Care at FCMSCSP. He has experience in the field of
Nursing, with an emphasis on clinical and surgical Adult Health, working on the themes: Nursing process, Cardiology, Intensive Care,
Emergency and Nephrology.

Publicado

2022-05-24

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