Manifestações oculares do transtorno do espectro alcoólico fetal: revisão bibliográfica / Ocular manifestations of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: a bibliographic review

Victor Ribeiro de Sant'Ana, Leonardo Marzola Hirata, Liane de Rosso Giuliani

Resumo


Introdução: O consumo de álcool por gestantes é reconhecidamente teratogênico, levando aos Transtornos do Espectro Alcoólico Fetal (TEAF). Indivíduos com esse espectro apresentam alterações em características faciais de nariz, lábios e orelhas, além das oculares. Objetivo: Realizar um levantamento de literatura científica para verificar as manifestações oculares presentes em pacientes diagnosticados com TEAF. Método: Foram pesquisados nos bancos de dados: Pubmed, Scielo, Cochrane e Lilacs artigos que trouxessem o tema descrito acima. Os dados obtidos da consulta foram tabulados com os seguintes parâmetros: estudo/ano, tipo de estudo/nível de evidencia, amostra e resultados. Resultados e Conclusão: De um total de 71 trabalhos, após análises de acordo com os critérios de inclusão e exclusão, foram selecionados 8. As principais manifestações oculares relacionadas à TEAF foram, em ordem decrescente: hipoplasia de nervo óptico, ambliopia, estrabismo, configuração anormal dos vasos retinianos, deficiência da função oculomotora, tamanho reduzido da órbita ocular, anormalidade na percepção de profundidade, displasia septo-óptica, astigmatismo e anisometropia. No tocante às manifestações oculares externas, as principais foram: blefarofimose, epicanto e telecanto.

Palavras chave: Transtornos do espectro alcoólico fetal, Oftalmopatias, Revisão

 

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Alcohol consumption by pregnant women is knowned to be teratogenic, leading to Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD). Individuals with this spectrum show changes in facial features of the nose, lips and ears, in addition to ocular ones. Objective: Perform a survey of scientific literature to verify the ocular manifestations present in patients diagnosed with FASD. Method: Pubmed, Scielo, Cochrane and Lilacs databases were searched for articles that presented the theme described above. The data obtained from the consultation were tabulated with the following parameters: study / year, type of study/evidence level, sample and results. Results and Conclusion: From a total of 71 studies, after analysis according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 8 were selected. The main ocular manifestations related to FASD were, in decreasing order: optic nerve hypoplasia, amblyopia, strabismus, configuration abnormal retinal vessels, impaired oculomotor function, reduced size of the eye socket, abnormal depth perception, septo-optic dysplasia, astigmatism and anisometropia. With regard to external ocular manifestations, the main ones were: blepharophimosis, epicanthus and telecanto.

Key words: Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, Eye diseases, Review


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Referências


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